Enecsys Gateway CG-A-AB-US-1

Table of Contents

1 Intro

The Enecsys Gateway is a Zigbee gateway allowing communications between the Enecsys microinverters and their monitoring backend. The Enecsys company is unfortunately defunct since 2015 and their DNS domains have been taken over by a UK enecsys owner who created his own monitoring system on https://enecsys-monitoring.com/

2 Zigbee Radio

The gateway contains a ETRX2-PA Zigbee module manufactured by Telegesis. More information about this module can be found in the page describing the Enecsys SMI-360-72 Inverter. This module is connected with an UART on the main MCU. The uart settings are 19200 8n1.

When the gateway boots and initializes its radio interfaces it starts to send broadcast frames every 15 seconds:

No.     Time           Source                Destination           Protocol Length Info
      1 0.000000       0x0000                Broadcast             ZigBee   47     Command, Dst: Broadcast, Src: 0x0000

Frame 1: 47 bytes on wire (376 bits), 47 bytes captured (376 bits) on interface -, id 0
    Interface id: 0 (-)
    Encapsulation type: IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless PAN (104)
    Arrival Time: Sep 21, 2022 20:43:42.000000000 CEST
    [Time shift for this packet: 0.000000000 seconds]
    Epoch Time: 1663785822.000000000 seconds
    [Time delta from previous captured frame: 0.000000000 seconds]
    [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 0.000000000 seconds]
    [Time since reference or first frame: 0.000000000 seconds]
    Frame Number: 1
    Frame Length: 47 bytes (376 bits)
    Capture Length: 47 bytes (376 bits)
    [Frame is marked: False]
    [Frame is ignored: False]
    [Protocols in frame: wpan:zbee_nwk:data]
IEEE 802.15.4 Data, Dst: Broadcast, Src: 0x0000
    Frame Control Field: 0x8841, Frame Type: Data, PAN ID Compression, Destination Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit, Frame Version: IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003, Source Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit
    Sequence Number: 227
    Destination PAN: 0x0064
    Destination: 0xffff
    Source: 0x0000
    [Extended Source: Enecsys_00:77:35:c1:a9 (34:c6:9a:00:77:35:c1:a9)]
    [Origin: 1]
    FCS: 0xd8bc (Correct)
ZigBee Network Layer Command, Dst: Broadcast, Src: 0x0000
    Frame Control Field: 0x1209, Frame Type: Command, Discover Route: Suppress, Security, Extended Source Command
    Destination: 0xfffc
    Source: 0x0000
    Radius: 1
    Sequence Number: 23
    Extended Source: Enecsys_00:77:35:c1:a9 (34:c6:9a:00:77:35:c1:a9)
    ZigBee Security Header
    Data (2 bytes)

0000  9c 39                                             .9

Frame 2: 47 bytes on wire (376 bits), 47 bytes captured (376 bits) on interface -, id 0
    Interface id: 0 (-)
    Encapsulation type: IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless PAN (104)
    Arrival Time: Sep 21, 2022 20:43:58.070981000 CEST
    [Time shift for this packet: 0.000000000 seconds]
    Epoch Time: 1663785838.070981000 seconds
    [Time delta from previous captured frame: 16.070981000 seconds]
    [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 16.070981000 seconds]
    [Time since reference or first frame: 16.070981000 seconds]
    Frame Number: 2
    Frame Length: 47 bytes (376 bits)
    Capture Length: 47 bytes (376 bits)
    [Frame is marked: False]
    [Frame is ignored: False]
    [Protocols in frame: wpan:zbee_nwk:data]
IEEE 802.15.4 Data, Dst: Broadcast, Src: 0x0000
    Frame Control Field: 0x8841, Frame Type: Data, PAN ID Compression, Destination Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit, Frame Version: IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003, Source Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit
    Sequence Number: 228
    Destination PAN: 0x0064
    Destination: 0xffff
    Source: 0x0000
    [Extended Source: Enecsys_00:77:35:c1:a9 (34:c6:9a:00:77:35:c1:a9)]
    [Origin: 1]
    FCS: 0x6a0b (Correct)
ZigBee Network Layer Command, Dst: Broadcast, Src: 0x0000
    Frame Control Field: 0x1209, Frame Type: Command, Discover Route: Suppress, Security, Extended Source Command
    Destination: 0xfffc
    Source: 0x0000
    Radius: 1
    Sequence Number: 24
    Extended Source: Enecsys_00:77:35:c1:a9 (34:c6:9a:00:77:35:c1:a9)
    ZigBee Security Header
    Data (2 bytes)

0000  37 38                                             78

Some more beacons can be found in gateway-beacon.txt. Unfortunately the beacons are encrypted with an unknown Zigbee Network key. This key is likely preconfigured as it would make sense for such a closed-loop system. Trying to decrypt the messages using the typical Zigbee key used by the Home Automation Profile (0x5A 0x69 0x67 0x42 0x65 0x65 0x41 0x6C 0x6C 0x69 0x61 0x6E 0x63 0x65 0x30 0x39) does not work.

As for the inverter, when it boots it first sends out a standard Beacon Request Zigbee packet every 77 (sic!) seconds, see traffic inverter-beacon.txt:

No.     Time           Source                Destination           Protocol Length Info
      1 0.000000                             Broadcast             IEEE 802.15.4 10     Beacon Request

Frame 1: 10 bytes on wire (80 bits), 10 bytes captured (80 bits) on interface -, id 0
IEEE 802.15.4 Command, Dst: Broadcast
    Frame Control Field: 0x0803, Frame Type: Command, Destination Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit, Frame Version: IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003, Source Addressing Mode: None
    Sequence Number: 81
    Destination PAN: 0xffff
    Destination: 0xffff
    Command Identifier: Beacon Request (0x07)
    FCS: 0x6d72 (Correct)

No.     Time           Source                Destination           Protocol Length Info
      2 77.003990                            Broadcast             IEEE 802.15.4 10     Beacon Request

Frame 2: 10 bytes on wire (80 bits), 10 bytes captured (80 bits) on interface -, id 0
IEEE 802.15.4 Command, Dst: Broadcast
    Frame Control Field: 0x0803, Frame Type: Command, Destination Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit, Frame Version: IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003, Source Addressing Mode: None
    Sequence Number: 97
    Destination PAN: 0xffff
    Destination: 0xffff
    Command Identifier: Beacon Request (0x07)
    FCS: 0xaaa2 (Correct)

No.     Time           Source                Destination           Protocol Length Info
      3 154.014790                           Broadcast             IEEE 802.15.4 10     Beacon Request

Frame 3: 10 bytes on wire (80 bits), 10 bytes captured (80 bits) on interface -, id 0
IEEE 802.15.4 Command, Dst: Broadcast
    Frame Control Field: 0x0803, Frame Type: Command, Destination Addressing Mode: Short/16-bit, Frame Version: IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003, Source Addressing Mode: None
    Sequence Number: 113
    Destination PAN: 0xffff
    Destination: 0xffff
    Command Identifier: Beacon Request (0x07)
    FCS: 0xe812 (Correct)

After receiving an answer to the Beacon Request from the gateway the standard association process starts. This has been captured and is available in zigbee-inverter-connect.pcapng and inverter-associate.txt as a text dump. After the exchange of some data back and forth the gateway indicates that the inverter is connected by incrementing a counter on the LCD.

3 Network interface

3.1 Device bootup

During the gateway bootup the following network traffic can be seen:

boot.pcapng

3.2 Port scans

TCP port scan results for the gateway's IPv4 address:

Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2022-08-15 22:08 CEST
Initiating ARP Ping Scan at 22:08
Scanning 10.1.0.10 [1 port]
Completed ARP Ping Scan at 22:08, 0.06s elapsed (1 total hosts)
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 22:08
Scannnnning 10.1.0.10 [65535 ports]
Discovered open port 80/tcp on 10.1.0.10
Completed SYN Stealth Scan at 22:11, 167.83s elapsed (65535 total ports)
Nmap scan report for 10.1.0.10
Host is up, received arp-response (0.0094s latency).
Scanned at 2022-08-15 22:08:48 CEST for 168s
Not shown: 65534 filtered ports
Reason: 65534 no-responses
Some closed ports may be reported as filtered due to --defeat-rst-ratelimit
PORT   STATE SERVICE REASON
80/tcp open  http    syn-ack ttl 100
MAC Address: 34:C6:9A:00:16:D4 (Enecsys)

Read data files from: /usr/bin/../share/nmap
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 168.05 seconds
           Raw packets sent: 131198 (5.773MB) | Rcvd: 136 (6.115KB)

UDP port scan results for the gateway's IPv4 address:

Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2022-08-15 22:12 CEST
Initiating ARP Ping Scan at 22:12
Scanning 10.1.0.10 [1 port]
Completed ARP Ping Scan at 22:12, 0.06s elapsed (1 total hosts)
Initiating UDP Scan at 22:12
Scanning 10.1.0.10 [65535 ports]
Completed UDP Scan at 22:33, 1314.24s elapsed (65535 total ports)
Nmap scan report for 10.1.0.10
Host is up, received arp-response (0.0027s latency).
All 65535 scanned ports on 10.1.0.10 are open|filtered because of 65535 no-responses
MAC Address: 34:C6:9A:00:16:D4 (Enecsys)

Read data files from: /usr/bin/../share/nmap
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 1314.44 seconds
           Raw packets sent: 131071 (3.676MB) | Rcvd: 74 (4.290KB)

3.3 The Web Interface

The default credentials for the web interface are admin/password. You can tell that the gateway is (c) 2009 as there is no way to change the admin password ;).

The following endpoints have been detected on the device:

Endpoint Description Notes
/index.htm ''  
/debug.htm Debug interface HTML layout  
/ajax.xml Debug interface polling endpoint  
/mpfsupload MPFS Image Upload  

3.3.1 Main user interface

The main user interface has basic settings like IP address and it can be used to set the remote monitoring server hostname and port. Apart from that NTP and proxy can be configured. Here is a screenshot of the main UI:

thumb-main-ui.png

3.3.2 Debug Interface

The debug interface allows us to see what messages the Zigbee Module UART sends to the main MCU. These appear to be raw decrypted contents of Zigbee frames from the inverters as well as some traffic generated by the Zigbee module firmware itself even when there are no inverters connected. Some of the layout of these messages has been reverse engineered in the section near the end of the document. There is also a status display about the Zigbee network and monitoring server connection. The interface itself looks like this:

thumb-debug-ui.png

The debug UI polls the /ajax.xml endpoint in the background in order to receive the data about the latest messages received from the Zigbee module. The endpoint returns the following XML:

<response> <zigbeeData></zigbeeData> <serverData></serverData> <connectionStatus>Offline</connectionStatus> <connectionUptime>-NA-</connectionUptime> <lastConnectionUptime>000:00:00</lastConnectionUptime> <connectionUptimeSinceReset>000:00:00</connectionUptimeSinceReset> <totalConnects>0</totalConnects> <connectionDowntime>000:23:21</connectionDowntime> <lastConnectionDowntime>-NA-</lastConnectionDowntime> <connectionDowntimeSinceReset>000:23:21</connectionDowntimeSinceReset> <timeSinceReset>000:23:21</timeSinceReset> <devicesInNetwork>0</devicesInNetwork> <device0></device0> <device1></device1> <device2></device2> <device3></device3> <device4></device4> <device5></device5> <device6></device6> <device7></device7> <device8></device8> <device9></device9> <device10></device10> <device11></device11> <device12></device12> <device13></device13> <device14></device14> <device15></device15> <device16></device16> <device17></device17> <device18></device18> <device19></device19> <device20></device20> <device21></device21> <device22></device22> <device23></device23> <device24></device24> <device25></device25> <device26></device26> <device27></device27> <device28></device28> <device29></device29> <device30></device30> <device31></device31> <device32></device32> <device33></device33> <device34></device34> <device35></device35> <device36></device36> <device37></device37> <device38></device38> <device39></device39> <device40></device40> <device41></device41> <device42></device42> <device43></device43> <device44></device44> <device45></device45> <device46></device46> <device47></device47> <device48></device48> <device49></device49> <device50></device50> <device51></device51> <device52></device52> <device53></device53> <device54></device54> <device55></device55> <device56></device56> <device57></device57> <device58></device58> <device59></device59> <device60></device60> <device61></device61> <device62></device62> <device63></device63> <device64></device64> <device65></device65> <device66></device66> <device67></device67> <device68></device68> <device69></device69> <device70></device70> <device71></device71> <device72></device72> <device73></device73> <device74></device74> <device75></device75> <device76></device76> <device77></device77> <device78></device78> <device79></device79> <device80></device80> <device81></device81> <device82></device82> <device83></device83> <device84></device84> <device85></device85> <device86></device86> <device87></device87> <device88></device88> <device89></device89> <device90></device90> <device91></device91> <device92></device92> <device93></device93> <device94></device94> <device95></device95> <device96></device96> <device97></device97> <device98></device98> <device99></device99> </response>

3.3.3 The MPFS upload

The MPFS is an internal HTTP upload server enabled by default in the Microchip TCP/IP stack. This feature can be used to upload files into the internal flash and possibly even modify firmware. There has been at least one device where this is possible: https://vulners.com/talos/TALOS-2018-0511. In the case of our device this won't be much use however as all of the Zigbee traffic encryption happens in the Zigbee module and the Microchip MCU is just a simple bridge which forwards the messages to the remote monitoring server.

4 Debug Messages Format

A number of debug messages have been captured so far when the device and inverter were in various operational modes. Based on simple time correlation the messages sent out from the debug interface seem to be plaintexts for the traffic exchanged via Zigbee. Based on the knowledge gained the development of a parser for the messages has been started: enecsys-watch-zigbee.py. Here is an example set of messages together with their hexdumps:

WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAZhIQEAAAAMClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=AE,S=2000011689
00000000  a9 c1 35 77 00 9a c6 34  00 00 07 51 21 01 00 00  |..5w...4...Q!...|
00000010  00 0f 0a 53 f5 05 f7 05  00 9a c6 34 48           |...S.......4H|
0000001d

WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAaSIQEAAAAOClOpwTV3AJrGNEg=0E,S=2000011689
00000000  a9 c1 35 77 00 9a c6 34  00 00 06 92 21 01 00 00  |..5w...4....!...|
00000010  00 0e 0a 53 a9 c1 35 77  00 9a c6 34 48           |...S..5w...4H|
0000001d

WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAbLIQEAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAYAY0AAwQF00  
00000000  f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34  00 00 06 cb 21 01 00 00  |.......4....!...|
00000010  00 00 14 30 03 88 01 00  02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |...0............|
00000020  18 01 8d 00 03 04 05                              |.......|
00000027

WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAdYIQIAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAZAY0AAwAF81
00000000  f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34  00 00 07 58 21 02 00 00  |.......4...X!...|
00000010  00 00 14 30 03 88 01 00  02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |...0............|
00000020  19 01 8d 00 03 00 05                              |.......|
00000027

WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAdYIQIAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAZAY0AAwAF81
00000000  f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34  00 00 07 58 21 02 00 00  |.......4...X!...|
00000010  00 00 14 30 03 88 01 00  02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |...0............|
00000020  19 01 8d 00 03 00 05                              |.......|
00000027

WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAe7IQEAAAACFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAADgZAY0AAwAF44
00000000  f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34  00 00 07 bb 21 01 00 00  |.......4....!...|
00000010  00 02 14 30 03 88 01 00  02 00 00 00 00 00 00 38  |...0...........8|
00000020  19 01 8d 00 03 00 05                              |.......|
00000027

WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAoiIQEAAAAVClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=22,S=2000011689
WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAApTIQEAAAAWClOpwTV3AJrGNEg=BD,S=2000011689
WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAqMIQEAAAAIFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAADgaAY0AAwAF44
WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAsEIQEAAAAJFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAADgaAY0AAwAF1E
WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAz0IQEAAAAbClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=C9,S=2000011689
WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAA0lIQEAAAAcClOpwTV3AJrGNEg=BC,S=2000011689
WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAA3WIQEAAAAPFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAADgaAY0AAwAFCF
WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAA4VIQEAAAAeClOpwTV3AJrGNEg=A0,S=2000011689
WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAA5OIQEAAAAQFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAADgaAY0AAwAF9D
WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAD2_IQEAAAB1FDADiAEAAgAAAAAAADgdAY0AAwAF46
WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAD6-IQEAAACFClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=48,S=2000011689

All of the messages fall into two patterns:

Message Flavor Contents Checksum Key-value pairs Notes
WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAZhIQEAAAAMClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=AE,S=2000011689 WZ qcE1dwCaxjQAAAZhIQEAAAAMClP1BfcFAJrGNEg= AE S=2000011689 2000011689 is the serial number of the Zigbee module inside the gateway
WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAbLIQEAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAYAY0AAwQF00 WS 9QX3BQCaxjQAAAbLIQEAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAYAY0AAwQF 00    

The first characters consitute what was named the "flavor" of a message. The flavor determines the syntax of the next parts as well as the message source. After the flavor come the messages contents (encoded with URL-safe base64), two hexadecimal digits which I assume is a checksum of some kind and after the comma key-value pairs. There was only one key-value pair seen so far and that is 'S' which contains the serial number of the Zigbee module contained within the gateway that is generating the message.

Based on many observations I have deduced that the WZ messages are generated by the gateway itself as they are present even when there are no inverters connected. The schema used to calculate what I assume to be the checksum has not been reverse-engineered yet. The meaning of the key-value pairs is obvious at this point. Further information is revealed after decoding the base64-encoded payloads. The structure inside is similar for both flavors and a number of common fields are used to encode the source of the message, type, etc. See below:

WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAZhIQEAAAAMClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=AE,S=2000011689
00000000  a9 c1 35 77 00 9a c6 34  00 00 07 51 21 01 00 00  |..5w...4...Q!...|
00000010  00 0f 0a 53 f5 05 f7 05  00 9a c6 34 48           |...S.......4H|
0000001d
Data Description Notes
a9 c1 35 77 00 9a c6 34 EUI64 of the source Bytes are inverted, gateway EUI64 is 34:c6:9a:00:77:35:c1:a9
00 00 07 51 uptime Unit is 500ms
21 01 type  
00 00 00 0f counter Sequence number
0a content length  
53 f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34 48 content  

Similar for a WS flavored message:

WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAbLIQEAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAYAY0AAwQF00  
00000000  f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34  00 00 06 cb 21 01 00 00  |.......4....!...|
00000010  00 00 14 30 03 88 01 00  02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |...0............|
00000020  18 01 8d 00 03 04 05                              |.......|
00000027
Data Description Notes
f5 05 f7 05 00 9a c6 34 EUI64 of the source Bytes are inverted, inverter EUI64 is 34:c6:9a:00:05:f7:05:f5
00 00 06 cb uptime Unit is 500ms
21 01 type  
00 00 00 00 counter Sequence number
14 content length  
30 03 88 01 00 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 01 8d 00 03 04 05 content  

Most of the interesting information is present in the 'content' section of every message, thus far the messages have been documented in the parser script mentioned above. To quickly summarize:

Flavor Type Desciption Example messages Notes
WZ 0x2100 Bootup WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAAAIQAAAAAAA1BSAg==96,S=2000011689  
      WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAAAIQAAAAABGU4SAGS13J5ge-wZ4QAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=DF,S=2000011689  
WZ 0x2101 Connectivity report WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAABDnIQEAAAASClOpwTV3AJrGNEg=9A,S=2000011689 Sends the EUI64 of other Zigbee devices on the network
      WZ=qcE1dwCaxjQAAAdRIQEAAAAPClP1BfcFAJrGNEg=60,S=2000011689  
WS 0x2100 Bootup WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAB4IQAAAAABPXIBAwX3BfVXU0ktMDAwMDMAAAAAAAAAADwAAAAAMDEtMDItMTIgMDI6MjH_wAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=29  
WS 0x2101 Power measurement WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAE4HIQEAAAARFDADiAMAAgAAAAAAAEUdAY4AAwAFE1 Contains DC and AC power, AC frequency, efficiency as well as AC voltage (inverter idle)
WS 0x2102 Power measurement WS=9QX3BQCaxjQAAAdYIQIAAAAAFDADiAEAAgAAAAAAAAAZAY0AAwAF81 Contains DC and AC power, AC frequency, efficiency as well as AC voltage (inverter online)

The 0x2101 and 0x2102 WS messages seem to contain identical data and look to be related to the state of the inverter itself. For example, the 0x2101 messages are sent always, even when the inverter is connected only to the DC side. However the exact difference is not clear at this point.

Based on a screenshot found for a gateway software that is being sold on eBay (https://www.ebay.com/itm/283656242209) it looks like there are additional items reported by the inverter which have not yet been located:

  • serial number
  • lifetime kWh
  • DC amps
  • temperature

Author: Maciej Grela

Created: 2022-11-05 14:24

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